九州平台娱乐

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教育部《高等学校课程思政建设指导纲要》

2020年06月08日 (点击: )


教育部关于印发《高等学校课程思政建设
指导纲要》的通知

jiaogao〔2020〕3hao

gesheng、zizhiqu、zhixiashijiaoyuting(jiaowei),xinjiangshengchanjianshebingtuanjiaoyuju,youguanbumen(danwei)jiaoyusi(ju),bushugegaodengxuexiao、bushenghejiangegaodengxuexiao:

  《gaodengxuexiaokechengsizhengjianshezhidaogangyao》yijingjiaoyubudangzuhuiyishenyitongguo,xianyinfajinimen,qingjieheshijirenzhenguanchezhixing。

jiaoyubu

2020nian5yue28ri

高等学校课程思政建设指导纲要

  weishenruguancheluoshixijinpingzongshujiguanyujiaoyudezhongyaolunshuhequanguojiaoyudahuijingshen,guancheluoshizhonggongzhongyangbangongting、guowuyuanbangongting《guanyushenhuaxinshidaixuexiaosixiangzhengzhililunkegaigechuangxinderuoganyijian》,basixiangzhengzhijiaoyuguanchuanrencaipeiyangtixi,quanmiantuijingaoxiaokechengsizhengjianshe,fahuihaomeimenkechengdeyurenzuoyong,tigaogaoxiaorencaipeiyangzhiliang,tezhidingbengangyao。

  一、全面推进课程思政建设是落实立德树人根本任务的战略举措

  peiyangshenmeren、zenyangpeiyangren、weisheipeiyangrenshijiaoyudegenbenwenti,lideshurenchengxiaoshijianyangaoxiaoyiqiegongzuodegenbenbiaozhun。luoshilideshurengenbenrenwu,bixujiangjiazhisuzao、zhishichuanshouhenenglipeiyangsanzherongweiyiti、bukegelie。quanmiantuijinkechengsizhengjianshe,jiushiyaoyujiazhiguanyindaoyuzhishichuanshouhenenglipeiyangzhizhong,bangzhuxueshengsuzaozhengquedeshijieguan、renshengguan、jiazhiguan,zheishirencaipeiyangdeyingyouzhiyi,gengshibibeineirong。zheiyizhanlvejucuo,yingxiangshenzhijuedingzhejiebanrenwenti,yingxiangshenzhijuedingzheguojiazhangzhijiuan,yingxiangshenzhijuedingzheminzufuxingheguojiajueqi。yaojinjinzhuazhujiaoshiduiwu“zhulijun”、kechengjianshe“zhuzhanchang”、ketangjiaoxue“zhuqudao”,rangsuoyougaoxiao、suoyoujiaoshi、suoyoukechengdouchengdanhaoyurenzeren,shouhaoyiduanqu、zhonghaozerentian,shigeleikechengyusizhengkechengtongxiangtongxing,jiangxianxingjiaoyuheyinxingjiaoyuxiangtongyi,xingchengxietongxiaoying,goujianquanyuanquanchengquanfangweiyurendageju。

  二、课程思政建设是全面提高人才培养质量的重要任务

九州平台娱乐  gaodengxuexiaorencaipeiyangshiyurenheyucaixiangtongyideguocheng。jianshegaoshuipingrencaipeiyangtixi,bixujiangsixiangzhengzhigongzuotixiguantongqizhong,bixuzhuahaokechengsizhengjianshe,jiejuehaozhuanyejiaoyuhesizhengjiaoyu“liangzhangpi”wenti。yaolaoguquelirencaipeiyangdezhongxindiwei,weiraogoujiangaoshuipingrencaipeiyangtixi,buduanwanshankechengsizhenggongzuotixi、jiaoxuetixiheneirongtixi。gaoxiaozhuyaofuzetongzhiyaozhijiezhuarencaipeiyanggongzuo,tongchouzuohaogexuekezhuanye、geleikechengdekechengsizhengjianshe。yaojinjinweiraoguojiahequyufazhanxuqiu,jiehexuexiaofazhandingweiherencaipeiyangmubiao,goujianquanmianfugai、leixingfengfu、cengcidijin、xianghuzhichengdekechengsizhengtixi。yaoqieshibajiaoyujiaoxuezuoweizuijichuzuigenbendegongzuo,shenruwajuegeleikechenghejiaoxuefangshizhongyunhandesixiangzhengzhijiaoyuziyuan,rangxueshengtongguoxuexi,zhangwoshiwufazhanguilv,tongxiaotianxiadaoli,fengfuxueshi,zengzhangjianshi,suzaopinge,nulichengweidezhitimeilaoquanmianfazhandeshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren。

  三、明确课程思政建设目标要求和内容重点

九州平台娱乐  kechengsizhengjianshegongzuoyaoweiraoquanmiantigaorencaipeiyangnenglizheigehexindian,zaiquanguosuoyougaoxiao、suoyouxuekezhuanyequanmiantuijin,cushikechengsizhengdelinianxingchengguangfangongshi,guangdajiaoshikaizhankechengsizhengjianshedeyishihenengliquanmiantisheng,xietongtuijinkechengsizhengjianshedetizhijizhijibenjianquan,gaoxiaolideshurenchengxiaojinyibutigao。

  kechengsizhengjiansheneirongyaojinjinweiraojiandingxueshenglixiangxinnian,yiaidang、aiguo、aishehuizhuyi、airenmin、aijitiweizhuxian,weiraozhengzhirentong、jiaguoqinghuai、wenhuasuyang、xianfafazhiyishi、daodexiuyangdengzhongdianyouhuakechengsizhengneironggongji,xitongjinxingzhongguoteseshehuizhuyihezhongguomengjiaoyu、shehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguanjiaoyu、fazhijiaoyu、laodongjiaoyu、xinlijiankangjiaoyu、zhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuajiaoyu。

  ——tuijinxijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangjinjiaocaijinketangjintounao。jianchibuxieyongxijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangzhuhunyuren,yindaoxueshenglejieshiqingguoqingdangqingminqing,zengqiangduidangdechuangxinlilundezhengzhirentong、sixiangrentong、qingganrentong,jiandingzhongguoteseshehuizhuyidaoluzixin、lilunzixin、zhiduzixin、wenhuazixin。

九州平台娱乐  ——peiyuhejianxingshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguan。jiaoyuyindaoxueshengbaguojia、shehui、gongmindejiazhiyaoqiurongweiyiti,tigaogerendeaiguo、jingye、chengxin、youshanxiuyang,zijuebaxiaoworongrudawo,buduanzhuiqiuguojiadefuqiang、minzhu、wenming、hexieheshehuideziyou、pingdeng、gongzheng、fazhi,jiangshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguanneihuaweijingshenzhuiqiu、waihuaweizijuexingdong。

九州平台娱乐  ——jiaqiangzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuajiaoyu。dalihongyangyiaiguozhuyiweihexindeminzujingshenheyigaigechuangxinweihexindeshidaijingshen,jiaoyuyindaoxueshengshenkelijiezhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuazhongjiangrenai、zhongminben、shouchengxin、chongzhengyi、shanghehe、qiudatongdesixiangjinghuaheshidaijiazhi,jiaoyuyindaoxueshengchuanchengzhonghuawenmai,fuyouzhongguoxin、baohanzhongguoqing、chongmanzhongguowei。

九州平台娱乐  ——shenrukaizhanxianfafazhijiaoyu。jiaoyuyindaoxueshengxuesijianwuxijinpingquanmianyifazhiguoxinlinianxinsixiangxinzhanlve,laogushulifazhiguannian,jiandingzouzhongguoteseshehuizhuyifazhidaoludelixianghexinnian,shenhuaduifazhilinian、fazhiyuanze、zhongyaofalvgainianderenzhi,tigaoyunyongfazhisiweihefazhifangshiweihuzishenquanli、canyushehuigonggongshiwu、huajiemaodunjiufendeyishihenengli。

  ——shenhuazhiyelixianghezhiyedaodejiaoyu。jiaoyuyindaoxueshengshenkelijiebingzijueshijiangexingyedezhiyejingshenhezhiyeguifan,zengqiangzhiyezerengan,peiyangzunjishoufa、aigangjingye、wusifengxian、chengshishouxin、gongdaobanshi、kaituochuangxindezhiyepingehexingweixiguan。

  四、科学设计课程思政教学体系

九州平台娱乐  gaoxiaoyaoyouzhenduixingdixiudingrencaipeiyangfangan,qieshiluoshigaodengzhiyexuexiaozhuanyejiaoxuebiaozhun、benkezhuanyeleijiaoxuezhiliangguojiabiaozhunheyijixueke、zhuanyexueweileibie(lingyu)boshishuoshixueweijibenyaoqiu,goujiankexuehelidekechengsizhengjiaoxuetixi。yaojianchixueshengzhongxin、chanchudaoxiang、chixugaijin,buduantishengxueshengdekechengxuexitiyan、xuexixiaoguo,jianjuefangzhi“tiebiaoqian”“liangzhangpi”。

九州平台娱乐  gonggongjichukecheng。yaozhongdianjiansheyipitigaodaxueshengsixiangdaodexiuyang、renwensuzhi、kexuejingshen、xianfafazhiyishi、guojiaanquanyishiherenzhinenglidekecheng,zhuzhongzaiqianyimohuazhongjiandingxueshenglixiangxinnian、houzhiaiguozhuyiqinghuai、jiaqiangpindexiuyang、zengzhangzhishijianshi、peiyangfendoujingshen,tishengxueshengzonghesuzhi。dazaoyipiyoutesedetiyu、meiyuleikecheng,bangzhuxueshengzaitiyuduanlianzhongxiangshoulequ、zengqiangtizhi、jianquanrenge、chuilianyizhi,zaimeiyujiaoxuezhongtishengshenmeisuyang、taoyeqingcao、wenrunxinling、jifachuangzaochuangxinhuoli。

九州平台娱乐  zhuanyejiaoyukecheng。yaogenjubutongxuekezhuanyedeteseheyoushi,shenruyanjiubutongzhuanyedeyurenmubiao,shenduwajuetilianzhuanyezhishitixizhongsuoyunhandesixiangjiazhihejingshenneihan,kexuehelituozhanzhuanyekechengdeguangdu、shenduhewendu,congkechengsuoshezhuanye、xingye、guojia、guoji、wenhua、lishidengjiaodu,zengjiakechengdezhishixing、renwenxing,tishengyinlingxing、shidaixinghekaifangxing。

九州平台娱乐  shijianleikecheng。zhuanyeshiyanshijiankecheng,yaozhuzhongxuesijiehe、zhixingtongyi,zengqiangxueshengyongyutansuodechuangxinjingshen、shanyujiejuewentideshijiannengli。chuangxinchuangyejiaoyukecheng,yaozhuzhongrangxuesheng“ganchuanghuichuang”,zaiqinshencanyuzhongzengqiangchuangxinjingshen、chuangzaoyishihechuangyenengli。shehuishijianleikecheng,yaozhuzhongjiaoyuheyindaoxueshenghongyanglaodongjingshen,jiang“duwanjuanshu”yu“xingwanlilu”xiangjiehe,zhagenzhongguodadilejieguoqingminqing,zaishijianzhongzengzhangzhihuicaigan,zaijiankufendouzhongchuilianyizhipinzhi。

  五、结合专业特点分类推进课程思政建设

  zhuanyekechengshikechengsizhengjianshedejibenzaiti。yaoshenrushulizhuanyekejiaoxueneirong,jiehebutongkechengtedian、siweifangfahejiazhilinian,shenruwajuekechengsizhengyuansu,youjirongrukechengjiaoxue,dadaorunwuwushengdeyurenxiaoguo。

  ——wenxue、lishixue、zhexueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongbangzhuxueshengzhangwomakesizhuyishijieguanhefangfalun,conglishiyuxianshi、lilunyushijiandengweidushenkelijiexijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiang。yaojiehezhuanyezhishijiaoyuyindaoxueshengshenkelijieshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguan,zijuehongyangzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhua、gemingwenhua、shehuizhuyixianjinwenhua。

九州平台娱乐  ——jingjixue、guanlixue、faxueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongjianchiyimakesizhuyiweizhidao,jiakuaigoujianzhongguotesezhexueshehuikexuexueketixi、xueshutixi、huayutixi。yaobangzhuxueshenglejiexiangguanzhuanyehexingyelingyudeguojiazhanlve、falvfaguihexiangguanzhengce,yindaoxueshengshenrushehuishijian、guanzhuxianshiwenti,peiyuxueshengjingshijimin、chengxinfuwu、defajianxiudezhiyesuyang。

  ——jiaoyuxueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongzhuzhongjiaqiangshideshifengjiaoyu,tuchuketangyude、dianxingshude、guizelide,yindaoxueshengshulixueweirenshi、xingweishifandezhiyelixiang,peiyuaiguoshoufa、guifancongjiaodezhiyecaoshou,peiyangxueshengchuandaoqinghuai、shouyediyun、jiehuonengli,baduijiaguodeai、duijiaoyudeai、duixueshengdeairongweiyiti,zijueyidelishen、yidelixue、yideshijiao,zhengzuoyoulixiangxinnian、youdaodeqingcao、youzhashixueshi、yourenaizhixinde“siyou”haolaoshi,jiandingbuyizouzhongguoteseshehuizhuyijiaoyufazhandaolu。tiyuleikechengyaoshulijiankangdiyidejiaoyulinian,zhuzhongaiguozhuyijiaoyuhechuantongwenhuajiaoyu,peiyangxueshengwanqiangpinbo、fendouyouwodexinnian,jifaxueshengtishengquanminzushentisuzhidezerengan。

  ——lixue、gongxueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongbamakesizhuyilichangguandianfangfadejiaoyuyukexuejingshendepeiyangjieheqilai,tigaoxueshengzhengquerenshiwenti、fenxiwentihejiejuewentidenengli。lixueleizhuanyekecheng,yaozhuzhongkexuesiweifangfadexunlianhekexuelunlidejiaoyu,peiyangxueshengtansuoweizhi、zhuiqiuzhenli、yongpankexuegaofengdezerenganheshiminggan。gongxueleizhuanyekecheng,yaozhuzhongqianghuaxueshenggongchenglunlijiaoyu,peiyangxueshengjingyiqiujingdedaguogongjiangjingshen,jifaxueshengkejibaoguodejiaguoqinghuaiheshimingdandang。

  ——nongxueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongjiaqiangshengtaiwenmingjiaoyu,yindaoxueshengshulihejianxinglvshuiqingshanjiushijinshanyinshandelinian。yaozhuzhongpeiyangxueshengde“daguosannong”qinghuai,yindaoxueshengyiqiangnongxingnongweijiren,“dongnongye、ainongcun、ainongmin”,shulibalunwenxiezaizuguodadishangdeyishihexinnian,zengqiangxueshengfuwunongyenongcunxiandaihua、fuwuxiangcunquanmianzhenxingdeshimingganhezerengan,peiyangzhinongainongchuangxinrencai。

九州平台娱乐  ——yixueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongzhuzhongjiaqiangyideyifengjiaoyu,zhelipeiyangxuesheng“jingyoushengming、jiusifushang、ganyufengxian、daaiwujiang”deyizhejingshen,zhuzhongjiaqiangyizherenxinjiaoyu,zaipeiyangjingzhanyishudetongshi,jiaoyuyindaoxueshengshizhongbarenminqunzhongshengminganquanheshentijiankangfangzaishouwei,zunzhonghuanzhe,shanyugoutong,tishengzonghesuyangherenwenxiuyang,tishengyifayingduizhongdatufagonggongweishengshijiannengli,zuodangherenminxinlaidehaoyisheng。

  ——yishuxueleizhuanyekecheng。yaozaikechengjiaoxuezhongjiaoyuyindaoxueshenglizushidai、zhagenrenmin、shenrushenghuo,shulizhengquedeyishuguanhechuangzuoguan。yaojianchiyimeiyuren、yimeihuaren,jijihongyangzhonghuameiyujingshen,yindaoxueshengzijuechuanchenghehongyangzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhua,quanmiantigaoxueshengdeshenmeiherenwensuyang,zengqiangwenhuazixin。

  gaodengzhiyexuexiaoyaojiehegaozhizhuanyefenleihekechengshezhiqingkuang,luoshihaofenleituijinxiangguanyaoqiu。

  六、将课程思政融入课堂教学建设全过程

九州平台娱乐  gaoxiaokechengsizhengyaorongruketangjiaoxuejianshe,zuoweikechengshezhi、jiaoxuedaganghezhunhejiaoanpingjiadezhongyaoneirong,luoshidaokechengmubiaosheji、jiaoxuedagangxiuding、jiaocaibianshenxuanyong、jiaoankejianbianxiegefangmian,guanchuanyuketangshouke、jiaoxueyantao、shiyanshixun、zuoyelunwengehuanjie。yaojianghaoyonghaomagongchengzhongdianjiaocai,tuijinjiaocaineirongjinrencaipeiyangfangan、jinjiaoankejian、jinkaoshi。yaochuangxinketangjiaoxuemoshi,tuijinxiandaixinxijishuzaikechengsizhengjiaoxuezhongdeyingyong,jifaxueshengxuexixingqu,yindaoxueshengshenrusikao。yaojianquangaoxiaoketangjiaoxueguanlitixi,gaijinketangjiaoxueguochengguanli,tigaokechengsizhengneihanrongruketangjiaoxuedeshuiping。yaozongheyunyongdiyiketanghedierketang,zuzhikaizhan“zhongguozhengfashiwudajiangtang”“xinwenshiwudajiangtang”dengxiliejiangtang,shenrukaizhan“qingnianhongsezhumengzhilv”“baiwanshishengdashijian”dengshehuishijian、zhiyuanfuwu、shixishixunhuodong,buduantuozhankechengsizhengjianshefangfahetujing。

  七、提升教师课程思政建设的意识和能力

  全面推进课程思政建设,教师是关键。要推动广大教师进一步强化育人意识,找准育人角度,提升育人能力,确保课程思政建设落地落实、见功见效。要加强教师课程思政能力建设,建立健全优质资源共享机制,支持各地各高校搭建课程思政建设交流平台,分区域、分学科专业领域开展经常性的典型经验交流、现场教学观摩、教师教学培训等活动,充分利用现代信息技术手段,促进优质资源在各区域、层次、类型的高校间共享共用。依托高校教师网络培训中心、教师教学发展中心等,深入开展马克思主义政治经济学、马克思主义新闻观、中国特色社会主义法治理论、法律职业伦理、工程伦理、医学人文教育等专题培训。支持高校将课程思政纳入教师岗前培训、在岗培训和师德师风、教学能力专题培训等。充分发挥教研室、教学团队、课程组等基层教学组织作用,建立课程思政集体教研制度。鼓励支持思政课教师与专业课教师合作教学教研,鼓励支持院士、“长江学者”、“杰青”、国家级教学名师等带头开展课程思政建设。

  jiaqiangkechengsizhengjianshezhongdian、nandian、qianzhanxingwentideyanjiu,zaijiaoyubuzhexueshehuikexueyanjiuxiangmuzhongjijizhichikechengsizhengleiyanjiuxuanti。chongfenfahuigaoxiaokechengsizhengjiaoxueyanjiuzhongxin、sixiangzhengzhigongzuochuangxinfazhanzhongxin、makesizhuyixueyuanhexiangguanxuekezhuanyejiaoxuezuzhidezuoyong,goujianduocengcikechengsizhengjiansheyanjiutixi。

  八、建立健全课程思政建设质量评价体系和激励机制

九州平台娱乐  rencaipeiyangxiaoguoshikechengsizhengjianshepingjiadeshouyaobiaozhun。jianlijianquanduoweidudekechengsizhengjianshechengxiaokaohepingjiatixihejiandujianchajizhi,zaigeleikaohepinggupingjiagongzuoheshenhuagaoxiaojiaoyujiaoxuegaigezhongluoxiluoshi。chongfenfahuigejigeleijiaoxuezhidaoweiyuanhui、xuekepingyizu、zhuanyexueweijiaoyuzhidaoweiyuanhui、xingyezhiyejiaoyujiaoxuezhidaoweiyuanhuidengzhuanjiazuzhizuoyong,yanjiuzhidingkexueduoyuandekechengsizhengpingjiabiaozhun。bakechengsizhengjianshechengxiaozuowei“shuangyiliu”jianshejianceyuchengxiaopingjia、xuekepinggu、benkejiaoxuepinggu、yiliuzhuanyeheyiliukechengjianshe、zhuanyerenzheng、“shuanggaojihua”pingjia、gaoxiaohuoyuanxijiaoxuejixiaokaohedengdezhongyaoneirong。bajiaoshicanyukechengsizhengjiansheqingkuanghejiaoxuexiaoguozuoweijiaoshikaohepingjia、gangweipinyong、pingyoujiangli、xuanbapeixundezhongyaoneirong。zaijiaoxuechengguojiang、jiaocaijiangdenggeleichengguodebiaozhangjiangligongzuozhong,tuchukechengsizhengyaoqiu,jiadaduikechengsizhengjiansheyouxiuchengguodezhichilidu。

  九、加强课程思政建设组织实施和条件保障

  kechengsizhengjiansheshiyixiangxitonggongcheng,gedigegaoxiaoyaogaoduzhongshi,jiaqiangdingcengsheji,quanmianguihua,xunxujianjin,yidiandaimian,buduantigaojiaoxuexiaoguo。yaozunzhongjiaoyujiaoxueguilvherencaipeiyangguilv,shiyingbutonggaoxiao、butongzhuanye、butongkechengdetedian,qianghuafenleizhidao,quedingtongyixinghechayixingyaoqiu。yaochongfenfahuijiaoshidezhutizuoyong,qieshitigaomeiyiweijiaoshicanyukechengsizhengjianshedejijixinghezhudongxing。

  jiaqiangzuzhilingdao。jiaoyubuchenglikechengsizhengjianshegongzuoxiediaoxiaozu,tongchouyanjiuzhongdazhengce,zhidaodifang、gaoxiaokaizhangongzuo;zujiangaoxiaokechengsizhengjianshezhuanjiazixunweiyuanhui,tigongzhuanjiazixunyijian。gedijiaoyubumenhegaoxiaoyaoqieshijiaqiangduikechengsizhengjianshedelingdao,jieheshijiyanjiuzhidinggedi、gexiaokechengsizhengjianshegongzuofangan,jianquangongzuojizhi,qianghuaduchajiancha。gegaoxiaoyaojianlidangweitongyilingdao、dangzhengqizhuagongguan、jiaowubumenqiantouzhuazong、xiangguanbumenliandong、yuanxiluoshituijin、zishentesexianmingdekechengsizhengjianshegongzuogeju。

九州平台娱乐  jiaqiangzhichibaozhang。gedijiaoyubumenyaojiaqiangzhengcexiediaopeitao,tongchoudifangcaizhenggaodengjiaoyuzijinhezhongyangzhichidifanggaoxiaogaigefazhanzijin,zhichigaoxiaotuijinkechengsizhengjianshe。zhongyangbumensuoshugaoxiaoyaotongchouliyongzhongyanggaoxiaojiaoyujiaoxuegaigezhuanxiangdengzhongyanggaoxiaoyusuanbokuanheqitageleiziyuan,jiehexuexiaoshiji,zhichikechengsizhengjianshegongzuo。difanggaoxiaoyaogenjuzishenjianshejihua,tongchougeleiziyuan,jiadaduikechengsizhengjianshedetourulidu。

  jiaqiangshifanyinling。mianxiangbutongcengcigaoxiao、butongxuekezhuanye、butongleixingkecheng,chixushenruzhuadianxing、shubiaogan、tuijingyan,xingchengguimo、xingchengfanshi、xingchengtixi。jiaoyubuxuanshuyipikechengsizhengjianshexianxingxiao、yipikechengsizhengjiaoxuemingshihetuandui,tuichuyipikechengsizhengshifankecheng、jiansheyipikechengsizhengjiaoxueyanjiushifanzhongxin,sheliyipikechengsizhengjiansheyanjiuxiangmu,tuidongjiansheguojia、shengji、gaoxiaoduocengcishifantixi,dalituiguangkechengsizhengjianshexianjinjingyanhezuofa,quanmianxingchengguangfankaizhankechengsizhengjianshedelianghaofenwei,quanmiantigaorencaipeiyangzhiliang。


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